How Does Cloning Work? Benefits and Types of Cloning

Types of Cloning
The process in which genetically identical copies of the cells and organisms are formed is known as cloning. Lots of organisms are producing clones naturally via asexual reproduction. In the biotechnology, we are forming copies of the cells and DNA fragments with the help of cloning. Besides biology, we are also using this technique in digital media because, in digital media, we are forming copies of the software. Plants, fungi and bacteria are using the same technique to reproduce themselves. On the other hand, the process in which molecules prepare their copies is known as molecular cloning.

History of Cloning:
According to research by a dissertation proposal writing service, the brief idea of cloning was given by Hans Spemann in 1938. He has given this concept by replacing the nucleus of an egg cell with the nucleus of the other egg cell. As a result, he was able to produce an egg from this egg cell. After that lots of developments were brought in this field. In 1996, scientists were able to prepare the first mammal clone. In 1998, the scientists were able to create the first cloned mouse. In 2000, scientists were able to create the first cloned monkey and pig. In 2009, scientists were able to create the first female camel. Nowadays, lots of advancement have been brought in the field of cloning.

Benefits of Cloning:
There are lots of benefits of cloning. Some essential benefits of cloning are given below;
  • With the help of cloning, we can’t make a whole person. Anyhow, with the help of cloning, we can make some essential cells. After transplanting these cells, we can easily improve the functions of some essential parts of the human body.
  • With the help of cloning, we can also remove the barrier of infertility. The most important example of cloning is adult somatic cells. As a result, one can give birth to his child.
  • It is extending the life span of human beings. That’s why the average life span in the developed countries is 85 years. In the United States, the average life span of men and women is 70 years.
  • We are using cloning for genetic modification. It means that human beings can select their features and characteristics.
  • Cloning is also helpful for us to save the endangered species from the fear of extinction.

Cloning Process:
You can prepare a clone by following these steps;
  • First of all, you will have to grow the cells. You can select the cells according to your requirements.
  • You should keep these cells in the freezer because if you keep these cells open, there is a possibility that these cells will die. In the freezer, you can also stop their multiplication process.
  • In the third step, you will have to take unfertilized human egg cell. After that, you should try to remove the nucleus from this egg cell.
  • In the fourth step, you will have to implant this egg to another egg cell.
  • In the fifth step, you will have to electroshock the egg cells. This will start the fusion of two cells.
  • If you have enough clones, you can repeat the last three steps for each clone. You should also try to save these cells from cellular damage and other mishaps.

Artificial Cloning:
The technique in which we produce different organisms which are similar to the genetical make-ups is known as artificial cloning. Some essential examples of the artificial cloning are an Asian crap that was cloned in 1963, Dolly sheep that was cloned in 1996, Camelina Mouse that was cloned in 1997 and Mira the Goat that was developed in 1998.

Reproductive Cloning:
The cloning process as written in inspiration books in which we produce an animal that is genetically identical to the donor animal is known as reproductive cloning. This is done with the help of somatic cell transfer. The newly born embryo is placed back into the uterine. In the uterine, it is easy for us to develop and implant this embryo. Dolly the sheep is known as the most common example of the reproductive cloning.

Therapeutic Cloning:
The cloning process which is designed for the therapy of a disease is known as therapeutic cloning. In this type of cloning, we take the nucleus of a cell and we insert the nucleus of this cell into the fertilized egg. The nucleated egg starts to divide and it forms the blastocyst. After this process, scientists extract stem cells from the blastocyst. The doctors can use these stem cells to treat patients who are suffering from specific diseases.
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